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A pigeon, Cher Ami, that was awarded the Croix de Guerre for its service during WWI. Cher Ami delivered the S.O.S. message of a lost, encircled battalion despite being shot through the breast, blinded in one eye, covered in blood, and with a leg hanging only by a tendon.

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In 1917 during WWI, Sgt Henry "Black Death" Johnson was wounded 21 times from a German Soldier raid. Racism was still a barrier and was never recognized by the U.S. until 2015, posthumously awarded the MOH. He was the first American in WWI to be awarded the Croix De Guerre by France.

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  1. A Homing Pigeon named Cher Ami received the Croix de Guerre for saving about 200 men in WW1. She delivered a message even thought she was shot, missing an eye and and with a leg hanging only by a tendon.

  2. The first American to win France’s highest military medal, the Croix de Guerre, was an African-American. Forbidden from fighting alongside white American troops, his unit had to serve with the French army during World War I. He was finally awarded the Medal of Honor in 2015.

  3. While in North America Antoine De Saint-Exupéry wrote Pilote de guerre (Flight to Arras), and Lettre a un otage (Letter to a Hostage).

  4. Josephine Baker toured during the war to entertain troops. After the war she was given the Rosette de la Resistance and the Croix de Guerre. General Charles de Gaulle also made her a Chevalier of the Legion.

  5. Legendary actor and decorated soldier Jimmy Stewart was initially relegated to being an "Army Recruiting Symbol". He requested to be apart of combat and would go on to earn many commendations including the Distinguished Flying Cross, an Air Medal with Three Oak Clusters, and The Croix de guerre.

  6. A pigeon won the prestigious Croix de Guerre in WW1. He was the only bird to receive this honor.

  7. The 2nd Battalion Devonshire Regiment, who in 1918 were left to stand and fight at Bois de Buttes, allowing French and English troops to retreat and regroup. 552 lost their lives 40-80 survived, earning the regiment the Croix de Guerre - France's highest military honour.

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The first American to be awarded the Croix de Guerre with special citation and a golden palm (France's highest honor) was a man nicknamed "Black Death."

About Cher Ami, a WWI messenger pigeon that received the French equivalent of the Medal of Honor, the Croix de Guerre - source

British LT. Col John Ford Elkington who lost his commission during WWI for cowardice at age 55 lost a leg fighting in the French Foreign Legion earning a Médaille Militaire and Croix de Guerre and his reinstatement to the British Army.

Susan Travers, the only woman to officially join the French Foreign Legion, and served in Vietnam, during the First Indochina War. She was awarded the Légion d'honneur, Croix de Guerre and Médaille Militaire by the French government. - source

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The phrase 'nom de plume' is not actually French. It is British. The French translation was ' nom de guerre', which made no sense in England.

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